The Battle of Fort Fisher, N.C.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Wyoming Gets New Sons of Union Veterans Camp-- Part 2

Membership in the SUVCW is restricted to men  who have direct or collateral ancestors who served in the Union military, in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps or Revenue Cutter Service.

The new camp's name is the same as a former camp in Sheridan that was formed in 1890.  Both camps are names after Francis Emroy Warren (1844-1929) who served  in the infantry of the Union Army as a noncommissioned officer in the  49th Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers.

At the age of 19, he received a Medal of Honor for battlefield gallantry demonstrated at the Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana.  Later he was commissioned as a captain in the Militia of Massachusetts.  After the war, he served as the last territorial and first governor of Wyoming and was the last Civil War veteran as a member of the U.S. Senate.

He is also the namesake of  Francis Emroy Warren  Air Force Base in Cheyenne.

The new camp commander is Karl Falken.

Always good to see a new Civil War organization on the scene.  I myself am a member of the Camp Douglas Sons of Confederate Veterans here in Illinois.

Congratulations Camp Warren in Wyoming.  --Old Secesh

Wyoming Gets New Sons of Union Veterans Camp-- Part 1

From the March 28, 2019, Sheridan (Wyoming) Press  "Camp of Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War (SUVCW) Chartered."

There hasn't been a camp in Wyoming for a long time, but there is one now.

The charter was signed by Commander in Chief Donald W. Shaw in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and was approved by the Commander of the Department of Colorado and Wyoming William Buvinger on November 18, 2018.

The charter was presented and officers sworn in at the  Fort Caspar Museum on February 23, 2019.

The SUVCW is a fraternal male heritage organization dedicated to preserving  the history and legacy  of veterans who served in the Union military.  Organized in 1881 and  chartered by Congress in 1954, the SUVCW is the legal heir and successor of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) formed in 1866,

--Old Secesh

Thursday, March 28, 2019

The Constitution of the Confederacy-- Part 2: Manuscripts Sold in 1883

Felix G. De Fontaine found the Constitutions in boxes which had been abandoned at the train station by fleeing Confederate troops.  Also were other records of the Confederate government which were being sent south after the evacuation of Richmond earlier that month.

De Fontaine sold the manuscript copy of the Provisional Constitution at auction in New York in 1883.    It is now in the Museum of the Confederacy in Richmond.  He sold the manuscript copy of the Permanent Confederate Constitution to  Mrs. George Wymberley Jones DeRenne on July 4, 1883.

The University of Georgia purchased the Constitution from the DeRenne family in 1939.

So It Is At UGA.  --Old SeConst

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

The Provisional and Permanent Constitutions of the Confederacy-- Part 1 Rescued From Chester, S.C.

From the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library University of Georgia Special Collections Libraries.

The Congress of delegates from the seceding states convened in Montgomery, Alabama,  on February 4, 1861.  They quickly  adopted a provisional Constitution, and, in less than a month, devised and approved a permanent Constitution, which was adopted March 11, 1861.

The original signed manuscript consists of five vellum  sheets pasted together in a roll 148 1/2 inches long.  The manuscript was part of a wagon load of boxes  rescued from the railroad station in Chester, S.C.,  in April 1865 by Felix G. DeFontaine, a newspaper correspondent during the war.

--Old Secesh

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Chester, S.C., End of the War-- Part 3: The Provisional and Permanent Constitutions of the Confederacy

Not only was the treasury of the Confederacy on the train, but also many important documents including both the  provisional and permanent Confederate Constitutions and the Great Seal of the Confederacy.

The Constitutions were recovered and kept safe by Felix Gregory  DeFontaine, who later sold them to museums.  The provisional one ended up in the Confederate Museum in Richmond, Va., and the permanent one  is now owned by the University of Georgia.

--Old Secesh

Monday, March 25, 2019

Attacks on the Confederacy Continue-- Part 3: March 24, 2019

Theses are the Google Alerts for Confederate from March 4, 2019.  Again, you rarely hear about them unless they happen near you, but, believe me, they continue unrelenting.

**  Fairfax County changes Confederate park names.

**  Ole Miss wants to move Confederate statues, after pleas from students, faculty and staff.

**  Community activists call for economic boycott of Jacksonville unless city removes Confederate monument.

**  Florida city dismantles, relocates Confederate statue.

**  United Daughters of the Confederacy:  Put Confederate statue back, take city attorney out of lawsuit.

**  Black man asks appeals court to move case from Clinton Courthouse with Confederate statue.

**  A way forward for Bedford on the Confederate flag.

It Goes On and On.  --Old Secesh

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Attacks On Confederate Heritage Continue-- Part 2: March 23, 2019

I usually do not even look at the alerts because it angers me too much.

These are the headlines for March 23, 2019

**  Ole Miss leader agrees Confederate statue should be removed.

**  After rain delay, Lakeland Confederate statue set to be relocated.

**  Veterans to discuss future of Confederate monument.

**  Texas billboard shows Confederate soldier urinating on Dallas.

**  Still funding Confederacy.  (Richmond, Va.,'s Oakwood Cemetery Confederate section)

**  Crane installed to relocate century old Confederate monument in Lakeland.

**  Verify:  Is protecting Graham Confederate monument costing taxpayers.

**  Franklin or United Daughters of the Confederacy:  Public square ownership case delayed.

Seeing Red Over These Offenses.  --Old Secesh

Attacks on Confederate Heritage Continue-- Part 1: March 22, 2019

Many people thing that all this Confederate hatred is no longer there, but, believe me, it continue and is getting worse.   Just because your local radio or TV news doesn't have anything about it, doesn't mean it isn't happening elsewhere.

If  you want to keep up with it, have the Google Alert for Confederate delivered to your inbox.

Here are the Google Alert headlines for Confederate for March 22, 2019:

**  Ole Miss will move Confederate statue out of campus center after protests.

**  Confederate group brings guns to campus, no arrests made.

**  Bid to strip Confederate link from Arkansas flag fails again.

**  North Texas billboard backs Confederate heritage, impugns Dallas.

**  Workers mobilize to  move Confederate monument in Lakeland.

**  Confederate monument in North Carolina vandalized again.

**  Lewd billboard supporting 'Confederate heritage' pops up on Texas highway.

**  Confederate statue is defaced in Salisbury.

Horrible.  --Old Secesh

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Chester, S.C. At the End of the Confederacy-- Part 2: A Railroad Connection and Confederate Treasury

In 1865, with the fall of Columbia, S.C., and destruction of its rail yards, Chester was the  southern-most town that could be reached in the dying Confederacy.  It became a bustling town with an arsenal and four hospitals taking care of wounded soldiers coming in almost daily by train.  Many died and were buried in nearby cemeteries, most notably Evergreen.

In March and April, there was a huge influx of refugees.

On April 13, 1865, Chesterville's Southern railroad Station (on Lancaster Street) became the end of the line for the Confederate treasury train from Richmond.

Boxes of gold and silver, guarded by the midshipmen of the Confederate States Naval Academy and others were then loaded onto wagons and shipped south.

--Old Secesh

Chester County and Chester (S.C.) At the End of the War.

In an earlier blog yesterday, I mentioned that the midshipman of the Confederate States Naval Academy, guarding the Confederate treasury in April 1865 as the government fled south (also with Varina Davis, wife of Jefferson Davis) and they went to Chester (called Chesterville back then) before moving on to Abbeville, S.C..

I found a lot of good information about Chester at the Southern Fried Common Sense & Stuff blog.

As Sherman left the wreckage of Columbia, S.C., he decided on a feint toward Charlotte to the north, while his real destination was Fayetteville and then Goldsboro, North Carolina.  This took him toward Chesterville.  His main force went north to Winnsboro, 25 miles south of Chester before turning so he never actually entered Chester County, although scouting parties and his bummers did.


In front of the  Hopewell Reformed Presbyterian Church in southern Chester County is a small stone monument  for Burrell Hemphill, a slave of Robert Hemphill who owned 2200 acres.  When Union forces passed through, the Hemphill family fled and left Burrell in charge of the estate.

Burrell buried the family silver in  the woods but was caught by Union bummers on his return.  He refused to tell them where he had buried the silver.  This angered them and they dragged Burrell to a spot near the church and hanged him and then lowered him several times, then rehanging him again but he continued to refuse to tell them.

He eventually died from the torture.  The Union soldiers then used his body for target practice.

--Old Secesh

Friday, March 22, 2019

The End and C.S. Naval Academy-- Part 3: Saved the Treasury and Disbanded

Lt. Parker decided not to disband the midshipmen and took it upon himself to take the Confederate treasury with him and go looking for President Davis or someone in the Treasury Department.  The force returned to Washington, Georgia, and then to Abbeville, S.C. in hopes of meeting them.

They arrived in Abbeville on April 29 and stored the treasury in a warehouse.  President Davis arrived on the 30th, accompanied by Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory.  Parker turned the treasury over to  the Acting Secretary of the Treasury who had them deliver it to Brigadier General Basil  W. Duke, commander of the cavalry detachment escorting the president.

On May 2, after just two years of existence the Confederate Naval Academy ceased to exist at Abbeville, S.C.,   Parker issued a written order to each midshipman detaching them from the academy, and after this, each one was given $40 in gold to help them reach their homes.

--Old Secesh

The End and the C.S. Naval Academy-- Part 2: On the Move Southward to Augusta

From April 3 to 9, Lt. Parker and his cadets were at Danville, Virginia, and then moved south to Greensboro, North Carolina, on April 10 and then to Charlotte on April 13.  Here the Confederate treasury that they had been guarding was placed in the Charlotte mint temporarily, but taken out as the Confederates  moved to Chester, South Carolina.

There the use of the train was abandoned and the treasury put on a wagon train, with gold packed ins small boxes and  and the silver in kegs.  The group, along with First Lady Varina Davis and her children, they traveled to Abbeville, S.C., by April 15 and stayed until the 17th and then  to Washington, Georgia, on the 19th and Augusta on the 20th.

By then, the midshipmen, Parker and the wagon train were in a serious situation.  They had no idea where President Davis or any member of the Treasury Department were.  They were helped thy the fact that they had joined a company of men under Captain Tabb back in Charlotte. But, there were bummers from Sherman's army and looters in the area.

But, he was able to secure  the treasury in the vaults of a bank in Augusta, and they remained in Augusta until after the surrender of Johnston.

--Old Secesh

Thursday, March 21, 2019

The End of the Confederacy and the Confederate Naval Academy-- Part 1

Even though the Confederate States Naval Academy (CSNA) is Navy, I will write about it here as the cadets at the end of the war were land-based.

From Wikipedia.

In the spring of 1865, as the fall of Richmond grew more likely, Secretary Mallory made the decision to relocate the school further into the interior of what was left of the Confederacy, North or South Carolina or even Georgia.   Lt. Graves was sent to find a suitable site.    Nowhere was found and Superintendent  William H. Parker rented a warehouse in Richmond and the midshipmen made preparations to sink their school ship, the CSS Patrick Henry as an obstruction in the James River.

On the afternoon of April 2, as Richmond was being evacuated, Lt. Parker received orders to report to the quartermaster of the Confederate Army and to escort President Jefferson Davis, his party, the Confederate  archives and treasury south.  Parker took 50 of his midshipmen for this task and left  Lt. James W. Billips and 10 more to set fire to and destroy the Patrick Henry.  They succeeded in this, but never succeeded in catching up with the others.

The main group guarded the train with the treasury, consisting of $500,000 which was to be used setting up  a new government seat in Danville, Virginia.  Midshipman Raphael Semmes, Jr. was detailed to the staff of his father, Admiral Raphael Semmes.  Midshipman Clifton Rodes Breckinridge was detailed to the staff as an aide to his father,  Confederate States Secretary of War, John C. Breckinridge.

--Old Secesh

Wednesday, March 20, 2019

MCCWRT March Discussion Group Meets Saturday, March 23: The End of the Confederacy and Davis' Run

This Saturday, March 23, at 10 am, the McHenry County Civil War Round Table discussion group will meet at Panera Bread in Crystal Lake, Illinois, for our monthly meeting.  Panera Bread is located at US-14 (Northwest Highway) and Main Street.

This month's topic is the end of the Confederacy concerning events in April 1865, leading to the surrender of Lee's army at Appomattox and the escape of the Confederate government southward.

It is open to all, members and non-members.  Anyone interested in history or the Civil war is cordially invited.

I will be talking about the role the Confederate States Naval Academy played at the end as well as Chester County, S.C..  See the next three posts.

--Old Secesh

Charles Stuart Tripler, U.S. Surgeon-- Part 3: Wrote Medical Books

He was buried at Elmwood Cemetery in Detroit, Michigan.  His wife and others supported him for a promotion to brigadier general and President Andrew Johnson did so, backdating it to March 1865.  In 1920, the hospital at Fort Shafter in Hawaii was renamed Triplet Army Medical Center in his honor.

His military career was not considered remarkable while he was living.  But in 1858, he wrote the "Manual of the Medical Officer of the Army of the United States" which outlined the basic physical requirements for army recruits and it was almost immediately accepted by the Army.

In 1861, he wrote "Handbook for the Military Surgeon" which standardized many Army medical practices to include administration, hygiene and surgery.

Tripler is also credited with inventing the first army four-wheeled medical ambulance.

--Old Secesh

Tuesday, March 19, 2019

Charles Stuart Tripler, U.S. Surgeon-- Part 2: Medical Director of the Army of the Potomac

During the Mexico City Campaign, Tripler  was assigned as medical director of General David E. Twiggs division and afterwards was ordered to organize and command the army's  general hospital in that city.  After the war, he continued serving in New York, Michigan, Kentucky and California.

On an expedition to  to Panama, the soldiers began to get sick from a variety of ailments which alerted Tripler to the inadequate medical procedures being used.

In the Civil War, he was appointed  Medical Director of the Army of the Potomac in August 1861.  He came under fire by the U.S. Sanitary Commission during the Peninsula Campaign of 1862 and was replaced by Jonathan Letterman.

He was allowed to chose his next post and he chose Chief Surgeon of the Department of the Lakes and stayed at that position for the rest of the war.

Death came to him in 1866.

--Old Secesh

Charles Stuart Tripler, Union Surgeon-- Part 1

As long as I am on the subject of Union surgeons, I will write about this man.  In the last post, I mentioned that he preceded Jonathan Letterman as chief surgeon of the Army of the Potomac.  Another man whom I had never heard of before this month.

From Wikipedia.


(January 19, 1806 - October 20, 1866)

United States brigadier general and surgeon.

Posthumously appointed brigadier general by President Johnson in 1867.  The Tripler Army Medical Center in Oahu, Hawaii, is named for him.

Graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City in 1827, served as a resident at Bellevue Hospital and then became an assistant to the West Point post surgeon and was commissioned an army assistant surgeon in 1830.

He served all over and then in the Second Seminole War and the Mexican War.

--Old Secesh

Monday, March 18, 2019

Jonathan Letterman-- Part 4: Battle of Antietam a Shining Moment In His Career

Charles Stuart Triplet preceded Jonathan Letterman as the head of medicine in the Army of the Potomac.

William A. Hammond was surgeon general of the United States.

The Battle of Antietam was probably the shining moment of Letterman's career.  He scoped out sites for hospitals.  Within 48 hours Letterman had most Union casualties off the battlefield.

Clara Barton began her work at Antietam.  Confederate casualties were treated in Union hospitals as well as Union casualties being treated in Confederate hospitals.  Once you were wounded or hurt on the battlefield, you were no longer the enemy.

Being a registered Antietam tour guide, Mr. Dammann knows there are four witness trees at the battlefield.

After Antietam, Jonathan Letterman was not as involved  with the Army of the Potomac, partly because McClellan, a big supporter, was removed from command.

At Chancellorsville, Letterman and Confederate surgeon Lafayette Guild got together and worked out an exchange of casualties.

After the war, Letterman moved out west and died, but his body was brought back east and buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

--Old Secesh

Jonathan Letterman-- Part 3: Advancements in Medicine

Continuing with the presentation of Gordon Dammann at the March 12 meeting of the McHenry County Civil War Round Table.

The first recorded use of anesthesia was 1847.  Chloroform and ether were used during the war.

During the Mexican War, rank was given to surgeons.

Bull Run was a complete mess for casualties.  Some remained on the field of battle for as many as two weeks.  There was no ambulance system at the time.

In 1862, Letterman joined the Army of the Potomac.  He immediately set out on reforms, including triage, evacuation and field hospitals.

During the Seven Days Battles there were 17,000 casualties.  Hospital ships were used and they had them all out in two weeks.

Ambulances got springs and ambulance crews had training.

Improving Chances of Survival--Old Secesh

Friday, March 15, 2019

Jonathan Letterman-- Part 2: Based Work on Teachings of Dominique Jean Larrey

His father was a physician and fairly wealthy.  Letterman took a 3-day test to become a federal surgeon and was of a very few to pass it.  His first posting was at Fort Mead, by present-day Tampa where he became friends with Stonewall Jackson who left the service and went to teach at the Virginia Military Institute.

Letterman went on to serve in Minnesota, New Mexico and San Francisco.

Letterman was much influenced by the work of Baron Dominique Jean Larrey (1776-1842) who served with Napoleon in his Grande Armee as a surgeon and is regarded as the world's first modern military surgeon.   The Baron's four adages about hospital work:  1.  Time,  2)  Triage,  3)  Evacuation.  Speed was of the essence, the faster, the more chance of survival.  Triage meant you first work on those needing it the most.  And, get the wounded off the field and to a hospital.

On the battlefield, the main operation performed was amputation.

--Old Secesh

Thursday, March 14, 2019

MCCWRT Meeting 3/12/19: Jonathan Letterman-- Part 1

This past Tuesday, March 12, 2019, the McHenry County Civil War Round Table (Illinois) met at the Woodstock Library for our first meeting of 2019, after our two month layoff during the winter.

Charlie Banks opened the meeting announcing a couple Civil War battlefield tours.  The Kenosha (Wis.) Civil War Museum will have one October 20-23 to Manassas at a cost of $770 double, $95 single.  This includes everything except getting to and from it.

October 11-12 the Northern Illinois Civil War Round Table will have one to northern Missouri with a $175 cost (not including meals and hotel.

Our speaker tonight was Gordon Dammann, a former dentist in both civilian and military life.  He is also a licensed Battle of Antietam , South Mountain and Harpers Ferry.  Mr. Dammann is a huge Antietam backer and is pleased to announce that a lot of acreage has been added to the battlefield and says this is the most intact battlefield that has changed the least since the time of the battle.

And, the medical situation at Antietam was the Letterman Plan.

--Old Secesh

Wednesday, March 13, 2019

Jonathan Letterman-- Part 3: It Was His Way for the Casualties

After the Seven Days Battles, Letterman essentially lost his job when his supporter, McClellan was dismissed and Pope installed as leader of the Army of the Potomac.  But after Second Bull Run, McClellan was brought back as was Letterman and they hurriedly put things back in order on their way to Antietam.

It was at Antietam that Jonathan Letterman shone in taking care of casualties.  he had a system of first aid stations at the regimental level where principles of triage (who gets treated first) were first instituted.

Basically, Letterman instituted standing operation procedure for the intake and subsequent treatment of war casualties and for the first time applied management principles to battlefield medicine.

He established mobile field hospitals at the division and corps headquarters.  They were all connected by an efficient ambulance corps under control of medical staff instead of the Quartermaster Department.  he also arranged for an efficient  system for the distribution of medical supplies.

His system worked at the Battle of Fredericksburg as well, but was compromised at the Battle of Gettysburg.  But later his ideas were adopted by the Army of the Potomac and all Union armies, officially by an Act of Congress in March 1964.

--Old Secesh

Tuesday, March 12, 2019

Jonathan Letterman-- Part 2: Organized the Medical Service

He was born in Pennsylvania. and graduated from medical college in 1849 and became am assistant surgeon in the Army.  Served in campaigns against the Seminoles in Florida, then in Minnesota and New Mexico and later California.  In these places he was involved in Indian conflict.

With the start of the Civil War, Letterman was assigned to the Army of the Potomac and  a month later, became a major and placed in overall charge as medical director for that Army.  In this position he immediately set about reorganizing the Medical Service.  Things were still a mess when it came to casualties in the Seven Days Battles in June 1862, but by the time of the Battle of Antietam, things were much better.

There were forward treatment stations at the regimental level where principals of triage were first instituted.  Mobile field hospitals were established at the divisional and corps levels.  They were all connected by an efficient ambulance corps.

--Old Secesh

Monday, March 11, 2019

Jonathan Letterman-- Part 1: The Father of Battlefield Medicine"

In the last post I mentioned that the topic of the presentation at the McHenry County (Illinois) Civil War Round Table on Tuesday, March 12, was going to be Jonathan Letterman who had a big impact on the battlefield medical practices during the war.  I've never heard of the man.  So some preliminary research is in order.

Never before in American history was the medical profession faced with the sheer numbers of casualties resulting from the Civil War's battlefields and camps.

And, of course, the first place to look is good ol' Wikipedia.  Always the first place to go when you're looking into something for the first time.

Major Jonathan Letterman  (December 11, 1824 - March 15, 1872)

American surgeon credited as being the originator of the modern methods for medical organization in armies or battlefield management in the United States.  Today he is often called "The Father of Battlefield Medicine."

His system of organization enabled thousands of wounded soldiers to be recovered  and treated during the war.

Right M.A.S.H..   --Old Secesh

Saturday, March 9, 2019

MCCWRT Meeting This Tuesday, Mar. 12: Jonathan Letterman

The McHenry County Civil War Round Table will have their regular meeting this Tuesday, March 12 at the Woodstock (Illinois) Library at 414 West Judd Street starting at 7 pm.

This month's presenter will be Gordon Dammann who will speak about Jonathan Letterman.

Letterman is credited with being the originator of modern methods for medical  organization in armies and medicine in the field.  He is known today as "The Father of Battlefield Medicine."

Should be interesting as I had never heard of him before.

The meeting is open to everyone.

AND<  Today is Bang-Clang Day.  This is the anniversary of the Battle of Hampton Roads.  Today, March 9, the USS Monitor and CSS Virginia fought to a draw.  Both were ironclads, hence the bang-clang.

Come On Down.  --Old Secesh

Friday, March 8, 2019

About Schofield's Move to Wilmington-- Part 4: Fort Fisher Resembled " A Farmer's Field Strewn With Pumpkins"

"Returning to Washington, Schofield, embarked with Cox's division on February 4th, leaving the rest of the corps to follow as fast as ships could be procured.  A gale off Cape Hatteras delayed the transports for a day or  two, but the division landed safely at Fort Fisher on the 9th.

"The fort still bore evidence of the extraordinary bombardment it had undergone, and its broad sandy interior was thickly strewn with great shells rusted red in the weather, and resembling nothing so much as a farmer's field strewn with pumpkins."

--Old Secesh

About Schofield's Move-- Part 3: Capture Wilmington Then Move On Goldsboro

Continuing with Cox's description of events.

The first detachments of Schofield's 23rd Corps didn't set sail for Fort Fisher until February 4.

"Meanwhile Schofield had joined General Grant at Fortress Monroe and had accompanied him to the mouth of Cape Fear River to hold a consultation with General Terry and Admiral Porter with regard to future operations in the Department of North Carolina, as the new command was designated.

"The result was to make Wilmington the first objective point to the campaign, so that a new base might be secured for Sherman if circumstances should should oblige him to concentrate his army south of Goldsboro.

"The first step accomplished, Schofield's task would be to open the route from Newberne to Goldsboro, rebuilding the railway, and uniting both his corps there in time to meet Sherman for the final operations of the general campaign when the concentration of the grand army should be complete."

--Old Secesh

Thursday, March 7, 2019

About Schofield's Move-- Part 2: A Grand Plan Works Out

The topic of last February's McHenry County Civil War Round Table was Sherman's Carolina's Campaign and Schofield's move from Tennessee to Wilmington was an integral part of it.  Back to what J.D. Cox had to say about it:

"The subsidiary operations which were intended to co-operate with Sherman's march northward from Savannah were two.

"First, the capture of Fort Fisher at the mouth of the Cape Fear River in North Carolina, and second, the transfer of Schofield from Middle Tennessee to the Carolina coast, where, with the Tenth Corps under Major General A. H. Terry and the Twenty-third under Major General Cox, he was to reduce Wilmington and advance upon two lines from that city and from Newbern to Goldsboro, at which place it was expected a junction with Sherman would be made.

"The attack upon Fort Fisher was practically simultaneous with Sherman's departure from Savannah and with Schofield's from Clifton on the Tennessee River; and the result of all, accomplished two months later, was the reunion at Goldsboro of the army which Sherman had led at Atlanta, except that the Tenth Corps was substituted for the Fourth, which still remained at the West."

Schofield's corps had been with Sherman at Atlanta, then moved west to stop Hood in Tennessee.

--Old Secesh

Wednesday, March 6, 2019

About Schofield's Move From Tennessee to Wilmington, N.C.-- Part 1

That Jacob D. Cox was an interesting person.

He commanded a division of soldiers in Schofield's XXIII Corps that made the move.

This is what Cox said in his book "March to the Sea."  I had seen much about it other than saying it had been done.

"The orders which had been sent General Schofield to move the Twenty-third Corps westward, reached him on January 14th (in Tennessee).  River transports took the troops down the Tennessee and up the Ohio to points where railway transportation could be got, and the transfer to Washington and Alexandria was then completed by rail.

"The distance travelled was fourteen hundred miles, and the corps was ready to take ship before February 1st; but the unusual severity of the winter weather had frozen the Potomac River, and it was not till the 4th that the first detachments of the troops sailed (to Fort Fisher)."

--Old Secesh

Tuesday, March 5, 2019

Jacob D. Cox-- Part 3: To North Carolina and the Books

Troops under Jacob Cox broke the Confederate supply line on the Macon and Western Railroad on August 31, 1864, forcing Hood to evacuate Atlanta.

Schofield's corps was ordered to join Gen. Thomas in Tennessee after it became apparent Hood was heading that way.  Cox's troops narrowly escaped destruction at Spring Hill, Tennessee.

Then, at the Battle of Franklin, Cox's troops were credited with saving the Union center.

He was then at the Siege of and Battle of Nashville.

When John Schofield was ordered to bring his corps east to join the operations against Wilmington, North Carolina, , Cox led the Third Division.

Afterwards, he  took command of the District of Beaufort and a provisional corps, which he led at the Battle of Wyse Fork.  His corps was eventually named the XXIII Corps.

During his later years, Jacob Cox became a prolific author"

"The March to the Sea:  Franklin and Nashville"  1882
"The Second Battle of Bull Run"  1882
"The Battle of Franklin, Tennessee"  1897
Military Reminiscences of the Civil War"    1900

--Old Secesh

Monday, March 4, 2019

Jacob D. Cox-- Part 2: Battles in the East and West

After Fort Sumter, Jacob Cox joined the Union Army to help fulfill Onion's quota of troops.  On April 3, 1861, Cox was appointed a brigadier general of Ohio Volunteers by Governor William Dennison and commanded a training camp near Columbus and later his command fought under Gen. George McClellan in what became West Virginia.

Later, posted to Washington, D.C., it took part in the Antietam Campaign and fought at the Battle of South Mountain September 14, 1862, where corps commander Jesse L. Reno was killed.  Cox took command of the corps and was at the Battle of Antietam.

After that, he commanded several military districts in the North.  Back in the field again, he participated in Sherman's Atlanta Campaign commanding the 3rd Division of the XIII Corps under Gen. John B. Schofield of the Army of the Ohio.  The 3rd Division was very involved in the fighting at the Battle of Utoy Creek on August 6, 1864.

--Old Secesh

Friday, March 1, 2019

Jacob D. Cox-- Part 1: Man of Many Hats

From Wikipedia.

Author the "Campaigns of the Civil War:  March To the Sea:  Franklin and Nashville."

So, who was this man?  Quite a remarkable man as it turns out.


(October 27, 1828-August 4, 1900)

Statesman, lawyer, Union Army general,  Republican politician from Ohio, 28th governor of Ohio, founder of the Liberal Republican Party,  author, recognized microbiologist, U.S. Secretary of the Interior, educator, U.S. representative and businessman.  Quite a life for this man.

I will stay mainly with his Civil War service, but his life is well worth the read.

In 1855, Jacob Cox helped organize the Republican Party in Ohio and was elected to the Ohio state senate in 1859, where he formed a political alliance with Senator and future President James A. Garfield.and with Governor Salmon P. Chase.  Some very important men.

While in the state legislature, he accepted a commission with the Ohio Militia as a brigadier general and spent much of the winter  of 1860-1861 studying military science.

Like I Said, An Amazing Man.  --Old Secesh

Sherman's 1865 Carolinas Campaign-- Part 3: Campaigns of the Civil War by The Blue & The Gray Press

I was finally able to find a brief mention of Schofield's move from Nashville, Tennessee, to Washington, D.C., in the space of 17 days, which I regard as quite a logistical undertaking.  That was the movement of some 13,000 troops over 1400 miles.

I found it in one of the Campaigns of the Civil War paperback books published  by The Blue & the Gray Press, Distributors, 251 Fourth Avenue, New York, N.Y..  There were 17 volumes with a price of $1.25 per volume.  Unfortunately there was no date.

At one time these were a big part of my collection of Civil War books when I was a kid without a lot of money.  I could afford these books.  They were noticeable with their blue and gray paper covers.  I have about ten of them and was never able to collect the whole group of 17 books.

Each one was written by leading participants and foremost scholars of each campaign.

The one I used for the information on Schofield's cross country trip was "March to the Sea:  Franklin and Nashville" by J.D. Cox.  Admittedly, this is a confusing title to also cover the Wilmington, N.C. Campaign and Carolinas Campaign, but this is where I found the information.

The ten people attending the McHenry County Civil War Round Table discussion group all said they remembered those books.

So, Who Was J.D. Cox?  --Old Secesh