The Battle of Fort Fisher, N.C.

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Elmer Ellsworth-- Part 6: At West Point and the White House

A high point of the tour for Elmer Ellsworth took place on July 26, 1860, when his outfit performed at West Point.  His one great desire earlier had been to attend the Point and become the soldier he wanted to be. Sadly for him, he had no political connections, something that was very important to get appointed to the USMA.   Now was his chance to show them what he could do.

And, the two American officers who had written the drill manual for American troops, William Hardee and Winfield Scott were in attendance.

Everyone was impressed.  To top it off, on August 4, the Zouave Cadets performed at the White House for President Buchanan.

There was no charge to see the Zouaves perform, but one time in New York City, they drilled inside and $1 was charged for each spectator.  This was badly needed as they were running out of money.

In Pittsburgh, Ellsworth was presented with a ceremonial sword.  That sword came up for auction a few years ago and had an opening bid of $60,000.

--Old Secesh

Elmer Ellsworth-- Part 5: Proving National Championship

To prove that his United States Zouave Cadets were the national champions in drill, Elmer Ellsworth determined to go on a 20-city tour.  But, in order to do so, $7,000 needed to be raised.  They sold Zouave drill manuals to raise part of it.

Even though his men were already a well-trained outfit, to be extra sure, Ellsworth launched a vigorous training regime.  They trained from 7 to 11 every night except Sunday.

They went on the road, appearing in Adrian, Michigan first and then to Detroit.  Ellsworth had strict rules and breaking any of them would get the man sent home immediately.

More stops at Rochester, Syracuse, Albany in New York and his Zouaves were becoming quite the celebrities. with their pomp and showmanship during the drills.

--Old SecZouave

Wednesday, November 29, 2017

Elmer Ellsworth & the U.S. Zouave Cadets-- Part 4: National Champions!

Next, Elmer Ellsworth went to Chicago and took command of the National Guard Cadets in 1859.  This group was on the verge of bankruptcy and danger of disbanding.  Ellsworth changed their name to the United States Zouave Cadets and started training them the Zouave way.  They appeared on July 4, 1859, at the famed hotel, Tremont House, in Chicago.

The Cadets found their new commander and drillmaster really took his job very seriously.  They had to sign a pledge not to enter a saloon, house of ill repute or be caught playing billiards anywhere.  If they were, expulsion would follow.

The Cadets had an armory and gymnasium in Chicago at the corner of State and Roosevelt.

They then went on competition to get a stand of colors worth $500.  They won, but other militias claimed unfairly so.  This enabled the U.S. Zouave Cadets to claim the National Championship.

Ellsworth decided to go on a national tour to prove how good they were.


Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Other Events Affecting the Civil War-- Part 6: Confederates Refusing to Cross the Potomac River

Continued from September 28, 2017.

**  Mobile as a port was closed in August 1864, but continued being held by Confederates until almost the end of the war.

**  Some Confederates refused to cross the Potomac River before the Battle of Gettysburg.

**  Inspections of equipment before military issue.

**  Grant being appointed to lead the Union armies which led to the first Union coordinated effort.

**  Did the South have the right to secede?  During the War of 1812, New England came close to it.  Plus there was the South Carolina Nullification which President Jackson forced them to back down.

Next month's discussion topic will be  "The Top Ten Blunders" of the war.

--Old Secesh

Monday, November 27, 2017

How To Pronounce Zouave

In case you're wondering how to pronounce Zouave:


Now You Know.  --Old Secesh

Friday, November 24, 2017

MCCWRT Discussion Group Meeting Nov. 25: The Black Experience in the War

The McHenry County Civil War Round Table Discussion Group will meet Saturday, November 25, 2017, at the Panera Bread Company at 8000 Northwest Highway (US-14) in Crystal Lake, Illinois, from 10 a.m. to noon.

The topic will be the Black Experience in the Civil War.

I will talk about Ann Stokes, U.S. Navy nurse and first black woman to receive a Civil War pension.  I will also talk about the movie "Glory."

Looking Forward to It.  --Old Secesh

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Elmer Ellsworth & the U.S. Zouave Cadets-- Part 3: Iron Brigade Connection

Then Elmer Ellsworth went to Rockford, Illinois, and his group of militia made a name for themselves with their precision drill at Camp Sinnissippi in Rockford at an encampment.  This is where the Sinnissippi Park is located today.  The Kenosha Civil War Museum has a broadside advertisement for this.

Ellsworth fell in love while in Rockford with Carrie Stafford, the daughter of a rich and powerful Rockford father, who did not like Ellsworth's prospects and did what he could to prevent a marriage until Ellsworth could prove he could support his daughter.

Next, Ellsworth went to Madison, Wisconsin, and trained the Governor's Guard, some of those men going on to prominent positions in the famed Iron Brigade during the Civil War.  The Iron Brigade originally was made up of the 2nd, 6th and 7th Wisconsin regiments, but was later joined by the 24th Michigan and 19th Indiana regiments.

--Old Secesh

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Elmer Ellsworth and the U.S. Zouave Cadets-- Part 2

Elmer Ellsworth lived in Kenosha, Wisconsin, in 1853 to attend Kenosha High School.  He came to Chicago in 1854 at age 17 and became a businessman, something that he was not suited for and this venture bankrupted him.

While in the city,thought, he vigorously studied the two main military drill manuals of the day by William Hardee and Winfield Scott.  He also got a copy of the Zouave training manual.  The Zouaves had impressed the world with their action during the Crimean War.

In 1857, he became drill instructor of the Rockford Greys and in the summer of 1858 taught them the Zouave system of drill.  Many of these men later formed three companies in the 19th Illinois Infantry.

--Old Secesh

Monday, November 20, 2017

Elmer Ellsworth and the United States Zouave Cadets-- Part 1

Presentation given to the McHenry County Civil War Round Table November 14, 2017, by Doug Dammann of the Kenosha Civil War Museum (Wisconsin).

Elmer Ellsworth was one of the most influential people of the Civil War, even though he died as young as he did and as early in the war.  It was the influence he had on his officers and what they accomplished later on in the war.  Mr. Dammann then showed a picture of the Green Bay Packer coaching staff  in 1992, featuring head coach Mike Holmgren and his assistants.  A whole lot of them went on to head coaching position and success on other teams.  And, that was what Ellsworth's officers did.

And, of course, there was the whole Zouave military thing and training.

Besides his own regiment that he raised in New York, the 11th, or Fire Zouaves (raised from New York fire stations) his mark was also on the 19th Illinois and 44th New York.

His great grandfather, George Ellsworth, was a private in the Continental Army during the American revolution.  His greatest ambition was to attend West Point but he didn't have the political connections to get nominated and attend.  But, he studied the all things military religiously.

Real Military bearing.  --Old Secesh

Friday, November 17, 2017

MCCWRT Meeting November 14, 2017

The McHenry County Civil War Round Table's Christmas Party will be Sunday, December 3 at the Bernard Mill Restaurant in Ringwood, Illinois, from 11 to 2.  The restaurant is in an actual 19th century mill.

Cost is $30, with proceeds going to the scholarship program.  Food will be served family style and guest speaker will be portraying Clara Barton.

The new officers and board were elected.

Our speaker for the night,  Doug Dammann is with the Kenosha (Wisconsin) Civil War Museum where he has been for the past ten years.  The museum opened in 2008 and they have a Second Friday Lecture once a month as well as a Campaign Tour the second to last weekend in October.  They just got back from Sailors Creek, Virginia and the Appomattox Campaign.

He spoke on Elmer Ellsworth and the United States Zouave Cadets.  I, of course, knew who Elmer Ellsworth was but didn't know anything about his Zouave Cadets which was why I looked them up and wrote about them this past week.

Well, At Least I May Finally Learn for Sure How to Pronounce Zouave.  --Old Secesh

Thursday, November 16, 2017

Civil War II-- 594: Statues in Question

From the September 17, 2017, Google Alerts for Confederate.

**  Confederate Flags not banned in most Lehigh Valley schools.  (Win)  But guess what they want done.

**  Confederate statue at Ole Miss campus rammed by pickup--  not clear if intentional.  (Loss)  It was in area known as Confederate Circle and honored Confederate dead.    The suspected driver was intoxicated and received medical attention along with a passenger.  "Hey, let's get  drunk and ram that statue!!"

**  Confederate statue part of county history, some say.  (Bell County)

**  Demonstrators gather to remember Confederate statue removed in (d)allas.

--Old Secesh

U.S. Zouave Cadets-- Part 2: Doing That Zouave Thing

There is a song sheet cover for a song dedicated to them called "The U.S. Zouave Quarter Step."

There were numerous Zouave units on both sides during the war, some wearing variations of the loose-fitting uniforms.Elmer Ellsworth received a Zouave drill manual and took over a drill company in Chicago that was about on its last legs.  he renamed it the Zouave Cadets and toured nationally one summer/fall before the war.

Ellsworth was a law clerk for Abraham Lincoln before he became president.

Ellsworth's monument and grave are in Hudson View Cemetery in Mechanicsville, New York.

--Old Secesh

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

November Civil War Chronology-- Part 2: The Gettysburg Address

Nov. 17, 1863:  Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee, begins and lasts for 16 days.

Nov. 19, 1863:  President Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address at the Pennsylvania Battlefield.

Nov. 23, 1863:  Battle of Orchard Knob, Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Nov. 24, 1863:  Battle of Lookout Mountain, Tennessee.

Nov. 25, 1783:  British evacuate New York City.

Nov. 30, 1864:  Battle of Franklin, Tennessee.

--Old Secesh

Tuesday, November 14, 2017

MCCWRT Meeting Tonight: Elmer Ellsworth and the Zouave Cadets

The McHenry County Civil War Round Table will be meeting tonight at the Woodstock Public Library in Woodstock, Illinois, at 7 p.m..  The library is located at 414 W. Judd Street, just a couple blocks of the famous 1840s Woodstock Square, where the movie "Groundhog Day" was filmed.

Tonight's presentation will be "Elmer Ellsworth and the Zouave Cadets" given by Doug Dammann.

--Old Secesh

U.S. Zouave Cadets and Elmer Ellsworth-- Part 1

From the Smithsonian.

This will be the topic of the McHenry County Civil War Round Table presentation tonight in Woodstock, Illinois.

Most know Elmer E. Ellsworth was the first Union officer killed in the war on May 24, 1861, when he took down the Confederate flag from the roof of the hotel in Alexandria, Virginia.  But not so many know about the group that brought him to military prominence, the Zouave Cadets.

The U.S. Zouave Cadets were organized by Ellsworth in Chicago 1859-1860.  They were noted for their precision drills and colorful uniforms.  They toured the United States in 1860, putting on shows and in August 1860 were invited to the White House to put on a performance for President James Buchanan and his popular niece, Harriet Lane.

--Old Secesh

Civil War II-- 593: The Right Punishment for Tearing Down a Confederate Monument

From the September 17, 2017, Google Alerts for Confederate.

**  What's the right punishment for tearing down a Confederate monument?  This refers to the August 14 incident where protesters tore down the Confederate monument.  For fear of trouble, the police allowed them to tear it down (these are very violent people).  But they filmed them and said they would make arrests later.

Several of them were charged with 2 misdemeanors and 2 felonies apiece.:  participating in a riot with property damage of more than $1,500, inciting a riot with property damage of over $1,500.

I'm Glad This Happened.  It Was Definitely a Hate Crime and That Should Have Been One of the Charges As Well.  --Old Secesh

Civil War II-- 592: Going to a Rally

From the Sept. 17, 2017, Google Alerts for Confederate Fort.

**  More Confederate symbols around Dallas could be removed.  (Loss)  Of course.

From Sept. 17, 2017, Google Alerts for Confederate.

**  Pro-Confederate rally drawing more protesters than Confederates.  Only a few Neo-Confederates in attendance.  Many more Neo-Nazi anti-Confederates.  I mean, as long as we are calling Neos.

**  One arrested as group rallies behind Confederate monuments.  About 200 pro-Confederate rallied in Lee Park in Dallas with few counter-protesters.  usually, pro-Confederates are severely outnumbered, much like in the first Civil War.

--Old Secesh

Monday, November 13, 2017

Civil War II-- 591: Now the Plaques

From the September 16, 2017, Google Alerts for Confederate.

**  Confederate monument rally at Madison County courthouse scheduled today.  Will not tolerate racism.  (Huntsville, Alabama)  There is a Confederate statue at the courthouse.  Counter protesters are expected  The statue erected 1905.

**  ECC history professors:  Confederate symbols sign of white supremacy.  (Elgin Community College, Elgin, Illinois).

**  Report:  UVA Board of Visitors votes to remove Confederate plaques from Rotunda.  (University of Virgina)  (Loss)  They want to add context to Jefferson owning slaves.

**  Passions run high as Confederate monuments are removed.

--Old secesh

Saturday, November 11, 2017

Veterans Day 2017: National Cemeteries

From U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

This being Veterans Day, no better place to  honor our veterans than a cemetery or ceremony.  I'll be going to the commemoration at the Fox Lake, Illinois, railroad station at 11 a.m..

If your community doesn't have a ceremony, a cemetery is a good place to visit.

There are 135 National Cemeteries for military in 40 U.S. states and Puerto Rico.  There are also 33 soldiers' lots and monument sites that are administered by the Department of Veteran Affairs.

Many states also have state veteran cemeteries.

And, for those of you who don't know, by law, Confederate soldiers are considered to be American veterans, so these attacks on Confederate cemeteries and statues is definitely an offense against ALL American veterans.

Saluting ALL of Our American Veterans Today and Every Day.  --Old Secesh

Friday, November 10, 2017

Marines in the Civil War

From Wikipedia.

The United States Marines were generally relegated to a minor role during the Civil War, most of their duty being on blockade duty.  As more and more Southern states seceded, the Corps lost a third of its officers who started the Confederate States Marine Corps.

A Marine company performed poorly at the First Battle of Bull Run and retreated along with the rest of the Union Army.

Blockade duty included sea-based amphibious landings.

In late November 1861 a group of Marines and sailors from the USS Flag landed in force at Tybee Island, Georgia and occupied the Lighthouse and Martello Tower at the northern end of the island.  It would later be an Army base for the bombardment of Fort Pulaski.

--Old SecMarine

Thursday, November 9, 2017

Civil War Timeline for November-- Part 2: Lincoln's Gettysburg Address

NOVEMBER 9, 1864--  Lincoln Re-Elected for second time.

NOVEMBER 13, 1814--  Union General Joseph Hooker born.

NOVEMBER  15, 1864--  Sherman begins his March to the Sea.

NOVEMBER 18, 1863--  Lincoln delivers his Gettysburg Address.

NOVEMBER 23-25, 1863--  Battle of Chattanooga.

NOVEMBER 28, 1861--  Missouri formally admitted to Confederacy.

NOVEMBER 30, 1864--  The Battle of Franklin, Tennessee.

Civil War Timeline for November-- Part 1: McClellan Chosen and Removed

From Mort Kunstler's 2017 Civil War Calendar month of November.

NOVEMBER 1,  1861--  McClellan replaces Scott as Commander of U.S. forces.

NOVEMBER 3, 1816--  Confederate General Jubal A. Early born.

NOVEMBER  5, 1862--  McClellan  removed from command.

NOVEMBER 6, 1861--  Jefferson Davis  re-elected  President of the Confederacy.

NOVEMBER 7. 1861--  Union forces capture Port Royal.

NOVEMBER 8, 1861--  Wilkes seizes Confederate commissioners off the British ship Trent.

NOVEMBER 9, 1825--  Confederate General Ambrose P. Hill born.

--Old Secesh

Wednesday, November 8, 2017

Mort Kunstler 2017 Civil War Calendar, November: Clara Barton at Fredericksburg


Clara Barton and Walt Whitman at Chatham, December 1862.  The Lacy House, known as "Chatham", was a stately mansion that overlooked the Rappahannock River and Fredericksburg.  It became a field hospital for untold numbers of Union and a number of Confederate casualties from the nearby battle at Fredericksburg.

"No fewer than 1,200  wounded men were packed into the rooms and hallways of the mansion.  Late arrivals from the battlefield lay on the cold, muddy ground.

Moving among the wounded was a volunteer nurse named Clara Barton.  She seemed to be everywhere:  distributing food, applying bandages, showing kindness to what she called the "hundreds of the worst wounded men I have ever seen."

Another nurse at the Lacy house was Walt Whitman.  The bearded poet was stunned by the crowded and chaotic situation he beheld.

--Old Secesh

Tuesday, November 7, 2017

Civil Wat II-- 590: Are Some Confederate Statues Uglier Than Others?

From the September 15, 2017, Google Alerts for Confederate Fort.

**  Statue of Robert E. Lee removed from (d)allas park.  (Loss)

From the September 16, 2017, Google Alerts for Confederate.

**  Confederate rally organizers say they don't know how many people to expect Saturday.  (Richmond, Va.)

**  America's ugliest Confederate statue isn't coming down anytime soon.  (Franklin, Tn.)  Statue of Nathan Forrest.  And I  thought all Confederate statues were ugly to Confederate-haters.  Guess some are uglier than others.

**What should you say about a sensitive issue?  Learn more about Confederate statue debate.

--Old Secesh

Monuments Around the South Carolina Statehouse

Last week I wrote about a movement to erect a statue of Robert Smalls, a slave who commandeered the Confederate transport Planter in Charleston Harbor, on the grounds of the S.C. statehouse.  This is where the confrontation over  the Confederate Flag started.

Statues on the grounds include an African-American monument, Robert E. Lee tree memorial, Confederate Women memorial, Confederate soldier monument, Wade Hampton (Confederate general) and Dr. J. Marlon Sims.  I have written about Dr. Sims before and his questionable experiments on black women in gynecology so would not have a problem with his statue coming down.

The Statehouse also has bronze star markers where it was struck by Union artillery in 1865.

Again, I would like to see a statue for Robert Smalls there.

--Old Secesh

Monday, November 6, 2017

Civil War II-- 589: How Racist Is the SPLC?

From the September 17, 2017, Google Alerts for Confederate.

**  Changing history?  No -- 32 Confederate monuments dedicated in the past 17 years.  This according to the very racist Southern Poverty Law Center which really does serous research on all the things they want removed.

This includes public schools, plaques and monuments. Iowa has had three dedicated since 2010.  Maybe the SPLC could work more on finding ways to end the mayhem in Chicago instead of keeping track of Confederate monuments.

**  Tensions put spotlight on Confederate monument in Houston park.

**  How the U.S. military still celebrates Confederate heroes.  (Military base names, of course.)

**  U.S. military leaders condemn racism following Trump's comments on Charlottesville violence.

**  **  Now black lawmakers say its time to get rid of Confederate statues in Congress, including Jefferson Davis and a host of rebel military officers.

It Just Goes On and On.  --Old Secesh

Civil War II-- 588: Going After the Tablets Now

From the September 17, 2017, Google Alerts for Confederate Navy and Confederate.

**  Protesters rally against the removal of Confederate statue in (d)allas.  Too late for that.

**  UVa Board of Visitors votes to move Confederate tablets from Rotunda facade.  (University of Virginia)  (Loss)  The plaques honor the school's Confederate dead.  Going after the tablets now.  What next?

**  There are still ten military bases named after Confederate soldiers.  And guess what they want done with those names?

--Old Secesh

And Meanwhile, In Chicago, the Deaths Continue to Mount Up

From Hey jackass, Chicago Mayhem and Murder site.

Yesterday, when we heard that a white person had killed all those people in the Texas church, the first thing I thought was "Oh No.  Please don't let the church be a black one."  That is so sad that I would think that.  And my next thought was, "Please don't let him, if this was a black church, been photographed with anything Confederate.

I mean, all this Confederate hate really got started with the black church in Charleston.

But then, I keep seeing all the shootings and murders in Chicago, where a whole lot more than 9 Blacks have been killed.  Evidently, the black community only gets really upset when it is a white person who does the shootings and killings.  It must not be a problem when it is Blacks killing and wounding other Blacks.

Here are the numbers:

November to Date:  9 killed, 37 wounded

Week in Progress (11-5 to 11-11:  3  Killed, 7 wounded

Year to date:  557 Killed, 2640 wounded

Every 2:19 someone gets wounded
Every 12:21 someone gets killed

The neighborhoods with the most murders and shootings are Black.

Victims are 78.3% Black and 17.6% Hispanic.

Friday, November 3, 2017

In Case You're Wondering What an Iconoclast Is

Well, I had to look it up, but figured it is something I wouldn't want to be called.

Merrian-Webster Dictionary.

Iconoclast:  A person who destroys religious images or opposes veneration.

1.  A person who attacks cherished beliefs, traditional institutions, as being based on error or superstition.

2.  A breaker or destroyer of images, especially those set up for religious veneration.


nonconformist, rebel, dissenter, radical.

How Many of These Fit Those Confederate Haters?  --Old Secesh

Civil War II-- 587: It's An Iconoclast Thing, You Know

Rubes for September 22, 2017.

Even the comic strips are getting into this.  In this single frame comic, a statue is holding a sledgehammer.  The person whose image is the statue is standing behind it with a sledgehammer held high and getting ready to hit it from behind.

At the base of the statue is "Iconoclast of the Year."

Iconoclast.  --Old Secesh

Civil War II-- 586: (d)allas Goes to Shame

From the September 15, 2017, Google Alerts for Confederate.

You don't hear these reports of aggression on Confederate monuments everyday on the news, but, as you can see, they continue.  Maybe, hopefully, they will take a break for the winter, but I doubt it.

**  On the terrible issue of monuments and all that.

**  Group that opposes Confederate symbols plans "Confederacy Heritage Awareness Rally in Norfolk.  (Virginia)

**  Confederate statue removed in (d)allas.  (Loss)  For its shame, (d)allas goes lower case and I start my boycott of it.  It is now on my list of disgraced cities.

**  Confederate monument vandalized in Roanoke.  (Virginia)  (Loss)  That is not "vandalized."  It is nothing short of a hate crime and should be treated as such.  I wonder what they'd call it if a Martin Luther King statue was "vandalized."

**  Leftest attacking more than just Confederate monuments.

**  Pensacola council discusses fate of Confederate monuments.  And, let's hope they decide to let them stay.  I'd sure hate to stop visiting the place.

--Old Secesh

Thursday, November 2, 2017

November Civil War Chronology-- Part 1: Lincoln Elected

Nov. 6, 1860:  Abraham Lincoln elected 16th president of the United States.

Nov. 7, 1861:  Battle of Port Royal Sound, South Carolina.

Nov. 8, 1864:  President Lincoln reelected.

Nov. 12, 1864:  General William T. Sherman's Federal troops burn the city of Atlanta, Georgia.

Nov. 16, 1864:  General Sherman's army departs Atlanta beginning its March to the Sea.

--Old Secesh

Wednesday, November 1, 2017

Civil War Trust 2017 Calendar-- Part 11, November: Franklin, Tennessee

FRANKLIN, TENN.  178 acres saved.

Battle of Franklin -- November 30, 1864.  Photo of Carnton Plantation.

From poster child for the concept of "lost" battlefield to a thriving heritage tourism destination based around a growing community-supported park, Franklin's preservation renaissance has been nothing short of remarkable.

Acre by acre, preservation advocates have secured once-developed parcels at the heart of the battlefield and pursued an ambitious course of landscape restoration.

Way to Go Franklin!!  --Old Secesh

Civil War Trust 2017 Calendar-- Part 10, October: Cedar Creek, Va.

CEDAR CREEK, VA.  639 acres saved.

Among the Cedar Creek landmarks protected through Trust efforts is the monument commemorating the valiant stand of the 8th Vermont  Regiment -- whose sacrifice allowed the Union Army to regroup in the face of a surprise pre-dawn Confederate attack. -- and Reinzi's Knoll, where Union Major General Philip Sheridan arrived on the field to rally his men and launch a devastating counterattack.

--Old Secesh

Civil War Trust 2017 Calendar-- Part 9: Battle of Antietam

September 2017

ANTIETAM, MD.  314 acres saved

For decades, full interpretation of Antietam National Battlefield faced a major stumbling block; a private inholding within 300 yards of the visitor center and surrounded by park landmarks at the Cornfield and Dunker Church.

That changed with the Trust's acquisition of the bloody "Epicenter" property, which will be restored and transferred to the park.

--Old Secesh

Civil War Trust 2017 Calendar-- Part 8: Battle of Cowpens

August 2017


Few narratives in American military history are as underappreciated by those general public as the Southern Campaign of the American revolution, during which backcountry battles -- often between Patriot and Loyalist colonists and militia rather than formal than formal standing armies -- helped turn the tide of war.

In 2015, the Trust announced a campaign to protect 1,037 acres at six battlefields across South Carolina.

--Old Secesh