Monday, September 30, 2013

Col. Leventhorpe & the 11th NC at Gettysburg-- Part 4

As Pettigrew approached Gettysburg, Longstreet's spy, Harrison, rode up to him and confirmed that there were indeed Federal troops near Gettysburg. Then Pettigrew and Leventhorpe halted the brigade and rode ahead. At a ridge, they could see that Gettysburg had ten roads coming into it, but still was unoccupied by Union troops.

Pettigrew sent skirmishers forward and was about to order his brigade forward when he spotted a long dark column on the Emmetsburg Road. With field glasses, he made them out to be Union cavalry. It was Buford's Division.

At that point, Pettigrew began withdrawing slowly. He went back to Cashtown to report to General Heth. There, with Gen. A.P. Hill, the decision was made to send in Heth's whole division to Gettysburg the next day.

--Old Secesh

The 47th NC at Gettysburg: Almost An Ambush

Also from Glenn Tucker's "High Tide at Gettysburg" Another one of Pettigrew's regiments was the 47th NC, which had a delaying episode as well as the 11th NC. They were eagerly anticipating shoes they expected to find at Gettysburg as many were shoeless. A civilian on horseback rode up to them and asked where he could find the commanding officer.

Some thought he might be a spy, but he was sent to the head of the column anyway. The regiment was halted and the men told to take cover. A minute later, several shots were fired at long range from the woods on either side of the road.

The farmer had not been a spy, but had come to warn them. And, as a result, they escaped ambush.

--Old Secesh

Saturday, September 28, 2013

Col. Leventhorpe & 11th NC at Gettysburg-- Part 3: Yankees Ahead?

November 5, 2018.  I have been going back and putting in paragraphs for my July 2013, to April 2014 blogs as I was unable to do that during that period.  I am leaving this one in to show what they looked like the,.

So, we have the 11th NC leading Pettigrew's Brigade of Heth's Division toward the little town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on June 30th, in hopes of finding a lot of shoes there. Even this far into Union territory, they defibitely were not expecting to come across any enemy soldiers. //// Getting back to Glenn Tucker's book, about two miles from the town, the advance party arrested a civilian who said he was a doctor making a house call. Col. Leventhorpe questioned him personally and to his surprise found out there were between four and five thousand Federal troops in the vicinity, plus an even larger force a few miles away. //// Leventhorpe immediately stopped his march and he made a quick ride to find Pettigrew, who was further back in the column. This halt prevented the clash of Meade and Lee's armies until the next day. //// Otherwise, We'd be Comemmorating the Battle of Gettsburg from June 30th. ---Old Secesh

Thursday, September 26, 2013

Col. Leventhorpe and the 11th NC at the Battle of Gettysburg-- Part 2: Highly Admired

According to Glenn Tucker, "The 11th was one of the most highly regarded regiments in the service." The Confederate inspector general had written to General Lee that "the Eleventh Regiment of North Carolina troops is the best drilled, the best equipped and the best armed regiment in the Army of Northern Virginia."

Some of its members had belonged to the 1st North Carolina Volunteers, the "Bethel Regiment" that had fought at the first battle of the war at Bethel.

Its commander, Col. Leventhorpe, was looked on as "probably the best finished and equipped field officer in the Confederate servive." And, with his previous service in the British Army, he had a lot of prior knowledge to carry over to his new command.

They Had Quite the Name to Live Up To. --Old Secesh

Col. Leventhorpe and the 11th NC At the Battle of Gettysburg-- Part 1: Shoes

From "High Tide at Gettysburg" by Glenn Tucker.

Pettigrew's Quest for Shoes

In Cashtown, Pennsylvania, on the night of June 29th, Confederate General Heth recalled Jubal Early's report that there was a supply of badly needed shoes in Gettysburg.

He directed General Pettigrew's brigade to go and investigate.

Early morning June 30th, Pettigrew set off to do just that, stepping out with the 11th North Carolina, Col. Leventhorpe, in the lead and heading down the Gettysburg Road with skirmishers in the front.

--Old Secesh

North Carolina Civil War Seminar Earlier This Month

And, I was happy to be able to attend it. It was primarily put on by the Battle of Bentonville State Historic Site and Friends of the Battle of Bentonville and held at the Paul A. Johnston Auditorium at the Johnston County Community College.

For $25, you got to hear and see six noted Civil War authors and experts on events surrounding the Carolina Campaign of 1865 leading up to and following the Battle of Bentonville.

And one of them was a man I have been wanting to see for many years.

Speakers were BERT DUNKERLY The Confederate Surrender at Bennett Place; WADE SOKOLOSKY Battles of Wyse Fork and Averasboro; CHRIS FONVIELLE Union Naval operations in NC in 1865; MARK BRADLEY the Battle of Bentonville; ERIC WITTENBERG Cavalry in the Carolina Campaign and ED BEARSS.

Ed Bearss IS the foremost Civil War Scholar around these days and someone I've really been wanting to see.

Glad to Get to See These People. --Old Secesh

Some More on Collett Leventhorpe

From Wikipedia.

(Born May 15, 1815, Died December 1, 1889.) Born in England. Bought the rank of ensign in the British Army and later also bought rank of lieutenant. (Buying your rank?)

Posted in the West Indies and in Canada. He later rose to the rank of captain (Did he buy it?) and then sold it October 28, 1842, and went to South Carolina on business from a British company. He and his wife are buried at Chapel of Rest Cemetery in Happy Valley, Caldwell County, North Carolina.

His wife Louise, tbe reason he became a North Carolinian, is also buried next to him (1827-1908).

--Old Secesh

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

And, What Is Badinage?

In the last post, I mentioned that Captain Daniel Oakey of the 2nd Massachusetts regiment said, "The regimental wits were as ready as ever, and amid a flow of lively badinage we toiled on through the mud."

I'd never seen the word "Badinage" before, but in context figured it had to do something with joking around. I was correct.

As a noun, it means light, playful banter and repartee. As a verb it means to banter with or tease playfully., raillery (another word I am not familiar with). It is from the French word Badiner meaning to joke. It was first used around 1658 and Shakespeare's plays are full of badinage.

Now, You and I Know. --Old Secesh

Just How Muddy Was It?

I came across this humorous quote in Mark L. Bradley's book "Last Stand in the Carolinas: The Battle of Bentonville."

The night before the Battle of Averasboro, March 16, 1865, a Confederate attempt to slow down Sherman's Army marching through North Carolina, it rained very heavily, turning roads and the land into a regular quagmire.

As Union Colonel William Hawley's brigade fell in for the march, Captain Daniel Oakey of the 2nd Massachusetts wrote that "The men furnished themselves with [burning] pine-knots and our weapons glistened in the torch-light, a cloud of black smoke from the torches floating back over our heads.

"The regimental wits were as ready as ever, and amid a flow of lively bandinage we toiled on through the mud. When we give us an opportunity of drawing breath, I found Sergeant Johnson with one arm in the mud up to the elbow.

"He explained that he was trying to find his shoe."

How Muddy Was It? --Old Secesh

Monday, September 23, 2013

NC's Col. Collett Leventhorpe-- Part 5: 11th North Carolina Infantry

Continued from September 6th.

After his release, he resigned his commission and took command of a NC Home Guard brigade that hunted down Confederate deserters. He was later commissioned brigadier general of state troops and defended the Roanoke River, Fort Branch and the Petersburg & Weldon Railroad. ////

He defended Raleigh and surrendered at Greensboro.

The 11th NC's flag that they had at the Battle of Gettysburg is on display at the NC Museum of History in Raleigh. This flag was in bad shape, but was conserved with money raised by the 1st NC Volunteers/11th NC Regiment.

This organization is now raising funds to conserve Col. Leventhorpe's frock coat that he wore at Gettysburg when he was wounded.

Quite the Leader. --Old Secesh

Friday, September 20, 2013

Chamberlain's Medal of Honor Discovered at Church Sale

From the September 10, 2013, CBS News.

General Joshua Chamberlain received his Medal of Honor in 1893 for his heroism at the Battle of Gettysburg. It was recently given to the Pejepscot Historical Society, a town where he lived for fifty years.

It was given to his granddaughter and upon her death in 2000, her estate was donated to the First Parish Church of Duxbury, Massachusetts.

Someone found the Medal of Honor in a book bought from the church and was nice enough to give it to the historical society.

Always Good News to Hear Things Like This. That Medal Would Have Been Worth Big Money. ---Old Secesh

Thursday, September 19, 2013

Six Fascinating Civil War Battlefields Across the Continent

From the July-August AARP Magazine by Bill Newcott.

1.  PICACHO PASS, ARIZONA-- Westernmost battle.

2.  SAINT ALBANS, VERMONT--- Northernmost battle.

3.  CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA-- First submarine attack.

4.  FORT MYERS, FLORIDA--  Cattle Battle.

5.  GETTYSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA--  Deadliest Battle.

6.  PALMITO RANCH, TEXAS--  Final Battle.

Of course, the article went into more detail.

Firstest With the Mostest.   --Old Secesh

Monday, September 16, 2013

Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry Company-- Part 2: Last at the Spanish-American War

When the 1st NC Infanntry was reorganized as the 11th NC Infantry, the FILI (Fayetteville Light Infantry Company) remained as Co. H. and fought at the Battle of Gettysburg and some of the members were still with the unit when Lee surrendered it at Appomattox.

After the war, the unit's history was marked by controversy when it refused to retire the gray uniform it wore fighting for the Confederacy. This refusal kept the unit from being accepted into the State Guard.

During the Spanish-American War, the FILI entered national service as Company A, 2nd Regiment, commanded by Captain Benjamin Huske. Wearing their Confederate uniforms, the enlistees marched into Camp Dan Russell, where "they doffed the grays" and "donned the blues" of the United States.

So, was this another "last" for North Carolina?

Could Be. --Old Secesh

Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry Company-- Part 1

From the Encyclopedia of North Carolina.

This unit also served in the 11th NC Infantry which I have been writing about.

The Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry Company (FILI) was formed in Fayetteville, NC, on 23 August 1793 out of fears stemming from the French Revolution and partly because of fear that the Spanish in Louisiana would incite Indians to attack.  Recent scholarship point to fears rising from slave rebellions in Haiti.

There was no mention of service during the War of 1812, but in 1825, the unit attended the Marquis de Lafayette on his visit to Fayettevile (named for him in 1784). Construction of the Fayetteville Arsenal in 1838 increased the unit's importance.

At the onset of the Civil War, the unit became a part of the 1st North Carolina Volunteers, called the "Bethel Regiment," as Company H. It was the first regiment organized in the state and had a lot to do with the Confederate victory at Bethel, Virginia.

--Old Secesh

Sunday, September 15, 2013

NC's First, Farthest and Last-- Part 3: Last Shots At Appomattox


The men of Company D, 30th NC Regiment, fired the last shots on federal forces at Appomattox on 9 April 1865, when General Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia.

There you have it: First, Farthest and Last.

North Carolina-Style. --Olod Secesh

NC's First, Farthest and Last-- Part 2


During the Battle of Gettysburg, North Carolina infantrymen advanced the greatest distance during Pickett's Charge on July 3, 1863. The 11th NC participated in that attack.


The 58th NC is sometimes credited with the farhest penetration of enemy lines on Snodgrass Hill on 20 September 1863. Although, at least one historian contends that battle conditions that day would make it impossible to substantiate the claim.

--Old Secesh

Friday, September 13, 2013

NC's First, Farthest and Last-- Part 1: "First At Bethel"

From the Encyclopedia of North Carolina

"First at Bethel, Farthest to the Front at Gettysburg and Chickamauga, and Last at Appomattox" is a traditional saying in North Carolina honoring the gallantry and honor brought to the state by its soldiers. 

Personally, I always heard it as "First at Bethel, Farthest at Gettysburg and Last at Appomattox."

It was coined by Editor Walter Clark, later chief justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, as early as 1901.

The initial three words "First at Bethel" holds a double meaning. The First Regiment of North Carolina Volunteers was instrumental in winning a Confederate victory at Bethel, Virginia, on June 10, 1861, the first land battle of the war and a Confederate victory.

In addition, Tarboro resident Henry Lawson Wyatt became the first Confederate soldier to die in the war.

The First NC later became the 11th NC which I have been writing a lot about in connection to its colonel, Collett Leventhorpe and its role at Gettysburg.

"Farthest at Gettysburg" Next. ---Old Secesh

Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Came Across Galena's Blakely Gun Again-- Part 2

From Bradley's book:

"The most notable of the captured cannon was a 20-pounder Blakely rifle adorned with a brass plate that bore the inscription 'Presented to the Sovereign State of South Carolina by one of her citizens residing abroad, in commemoration of the 20th of December, 1860.'"

(This, of course, referring to the date of South Carolina's secession.)

"The men of Hyser's battery took the Blakely gun and two other captured field pieces with them as trophies. The rest were dumped into the Pee Dee River or were loaded witrh massive charges and burst in honor of Lincoln's second inauguration on March 4."

The Gun Again. --Old Secesh

Came Across Galena's Blakely Gun Again-- Part 1

In anticipation of the North Carolina Civil War seminar this Saturday, I am reading one of the speakers' books, Mark L. Bradley's "Last Stand in the Carolinas: The Battle of Bentonville" and came across something that was familiar to me from earlier posts, the Galena, Illinois, Blakely cannon.

What makes it even better is that I have actually seen this cannon in Galena's Grant Park (General Grant lived in Galena before the war). It was Bradlley's description of the plaque on the gun that tipped me off.

Union General Sherman's first encounter with Confederate forces on his way to the Battle of Bentonville was at Cheraw, SC. After his forces drove Confederate General Hardee's forces away, they captured 25 pieces of field artillery. 5,000 rounds of artillery ammunition and 2,000 stand of small arms along with many other munitions.

One of these was the cannon at Galena.  It is reportedly one of the cannons that fired at Fort Sumter April 12, 1861.  Some even say it fired the first shot.

--Old Secesh

Battle of Whitehall-- Part 2: Foster's Raid

The battle continued for several hours until the Union cavalry burned the village and returned to camp.

Foster arrived at Whitehall the next day and engaged the Confederates, trying to make them believe he intended to cross the country, thinking he could then slip his army past Whitehall to attack a railroad trestle bridge four miles south of Goldsboro.

The Comfederates were not fooled amd the battle lasted into sunset. By nightfall on December 16th most of Foster's army had marched on, leaving just a small force at Whitehall (also spelled White Hall) to remove the wounded and bury the dead.

On December 18th, Foster withdrew back through Whitehall on his return to New Bern. A Confederate patrol afterwards found a hundred Union bodies left unburied.

Many northern newspapers figured the expedition had been a failure because of losses and failure to capture the bridge at Goldsboro.

--Old Secesh

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Battle of Whitehall-- Part 1: Fighting Near Goldsboro, N.C.

From the Encyclopedia of North Carolina.

The 11th North Carolina under Col. Collett Levanthorpe was at this battle that took place not too far from where I am right now, Goldsboro, NC. It was one of the unit's first actions. It occurred Dec. at present-day Seven Springs in Wayne County when Confederates under Brig. Gen. B.H. Robertson and Union Maj. Gen. John G. Foster during what is referred to as Foster's Raid.

The objective of the raid was to destroy the railroad junction at Goldsbboro, NC, particularly where the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad crossed a bridge.

Late Dec. 15th, Union cavalry scouts reached Whitehall shortly after Confederate troops crossed over the bridge on the Neuse River, set it on fire and took up defensive positions.

Union cavalry rolled hundreds of barrels of pitch to he river bank and set fire to them to light up the Confederate positions. Union artillery opened fire on the incomplete ironclad CSS Neuse.

Old Secesh

Monday, September 9, 2013

Dubuque, Iowa in the Civil War

This most recent trip to this Mississippi River town, I learned a bit of the town's Civil War history at the Old Jail Museum.

In the presentation, I learned that Confederate prisoners were at one time held captive in the basement (dungeon) below the old jail. The person working the desk didn't know anything about them though.

Touring the attached museum, I also found that a fairly large Northern training camp was also located there called Camp Union. They also have a large flag carried by the local regiment that fought at the Battle of Wilson's Creek.

--Old Secesh

Friday, September 6, 2013

The 11th NC's Colonel Leventhorpe-- Part 4: Wounded and a Union Prisoner

Once Col. Collett Leventhorpe was captured during the Confederate retreat from Gettysburg (probably at Falling Waters, Maryland), a Union surgeon tending him detected gangrene and suggested amputation. Leventhorpe refused (and with some medical background since he had studied medicine in Charleston, SC before the war) and had the surgeon cauterize the wounds with nitric acid.

He refused anesthesia, saying he "would have died, rather than let an enemy see that a Confederate officer could not endure anything without a complaint."

Afterwards, his arm discharged bone fragments for three months, but the colonel survived. Fort McHenry (I didn't know this famous War of 1812 fort had been used as a prison during the Civil War) in Baltimore and later Point Lookout were his prisons for eight months before he was exchanged.

During incarceration, friends in England sent money to purchase necessities.

--Old Secesh

Thursday, September 5, 2013

The 11th NC's Colonel Collett Leventhorpe-- Part 3: Wounded and Captured

On the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg, Col. Leventhorpe led 617 into battle against the Iron Brigade (I live close to US Highway 12 here in Illinois which is called the "Iron Brigade Highway" and has signage.)

He was seriously wounded at McPherson's Ridge.

The Iron Brigade and the 11th NC poured volley after volley into each other at just 20 paces. "During the attack, due to his size, nearly 6'6" and known to be erect and stately in bearing, he was a conspicuous figure towering over his fellow soldiers like Saul."

He was hit by several minie balls which splintered his arm and shattered his hip.

That ended his time on the front for the rest of the battle. He was captured during the retreat from Gettysburg.

And, He Was Right There in the Thick of the Fighting. --Old Secesh

The 11th NC's Colonel Collett Leventhorpe-- Part 2: Battle of White Hall

From the 1st NC Battalion Website.

Col. Leventhorpe attended medical school in Charleston, SC. He was made colonel of the 34th North Carolina after the state seceded. His first posting was at Fort Branch, near Hamilton, NC, guarding the Roanoke River and the Weldon Rail Road bridge.

In April 1862, he was transferred to the newly formed 11th NC regiment where he was elected colonel and then sent to Wilmington. The regiment participated at the Battle of White Hall which slowed Union General Foster's Raid that year.

In mid-December 1862, the 11th was attached to Pettigrew's Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia and was part of Heath's Division at the Battle of Gettysburg.

--Old Secesh

Col. Collett Leventhorpe-- Part 1: Former British Army Captain

I was interested in finding out some more information on the 11th NC's Colonel Leventhorpe.

I found this in the July 27, 2013, Civil War Talk.

Colonel Leventhorpe was a former British Army captain in the 18th Regiment of Foot where he served for ten years. He moved to South Carolina and, while on vacation in North Carolina, met a girl and later got married, moving to her native Rutherford County, NC.

This is how he came to reside in North Carolina.

--Old Secesh

The 11th NC at Gettysburg-- Part 5: Two-Time Prisoner at Fort Delaware

On the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg, the 11th NC almost annihilated the famed Iron Brigade, but in so doing, lost nearly half of its men. The regiment was held in reserve on the second day. On the third and final day, it was part of Pickett's Charge across those fateful fields.

PRIVATE "CYRUS" ALEXABDER ALLEN, CO. 1-- Wounded and captured at Pickett's Charge. Held prisoner at Fort Delaware until paroled and exchanged in late August.

Captured again at Petersburg and again confined at Fort Delaware. Released June 19, 1865. I would have liked to know his thoughts when he saw Fort Delaware for the second time.

Back "Home" Again.  --Old Secesh

The 11th NC at Gettysburg-- Part 4: Couldn't Get to Shade Because of All the Dead and Wounded

ISAAC BYRUM, JR, CO. F-- Wounded in left leg at Gettysburg and captured   His leg was amputated. As related by his granddaughter, "It was a hot day. I tried to drag myself to some shade, but couldn't for all of the wounded and dead laying around.

"Flies were beginning to blow it, so I tore a piece of my shirt and wrapped the wound. It was about sundown when they, the Yanks, picked me up off the field.

"I thought they could have saved the leg if they had picked me up earlier."

As a POW, he was transferred to various prisons until he got to Point Lookout, Maryland. After being paroled and exchanged, he retired to the Invalid Corps on 2 June 1864.

His artificial leg can be seen at the Museum of the Albemarle in North Carolina.

One Confederate's Story. --Old Secesh

The 11th NC at Gettysburg-- Part 3

This is just a partial list of losses for the regiment.

PRIVATE JAMES NEEDHAM ALEXANDER-- Enlisted 1 Feb 1862. Wounded in the left elbow and right forefinger at Gettysburg.

PRIVATE FRANCIS OSTWALT, CO. E-- Captured July 3rd at Gettysburg. Died of smallpox at Point Lookout.

PRIVATE FRANCIS McCONNEL, CO. 1--Captured July 3rd at Gettysburg. Died Dec. 30, 1863, at Point Lookout, Md.

--Old Secesh

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

The 11th NC at Gettysburg-- Part 2

PRIVATE WILLIAM LITTLETON BYRD-- Wounded at Pickett's Charge. Captured and held prisoner at David's Island until paroled and exchanged. Returned to the 11th and captured again a few days before Appomattox.

NOTE ABOUT 26TH NC AND 11TH NC-- At Gettysburg, the 26th NC had 100% casualties with over 250 men killed or wounded. The 11th NC had 50 killed and 159 wounded.

PRIVATE ALGERON DANIEL-- Co. G. Wounded and captured at Pickett's Charge.

PRIVATE ROBERT DANIEL (BROTHER) Wounded and captured at Falling Waters during the retreat from Gettysburg.

--Old Secesh

The 11th NC at Gettysburg-- Part 1

From the 11th NC Infantry Regiment Descendants Association.

Col. Leventhorpe was wounded and captured. Major Egbert Ross was killed.

PRIVATE JOHN J. KELLER-- Enlisted Feb. 11, 1863, with Co. B. At Gettysburg in Pickett's Charge. Wounded and captured. Confined at Fort Delaware, then taken by train to Pt. Lookout, Maryland around October 15-18, 1863. Died there of smallpox.

PRIVATE CHARLES MORRIS-- Wounded at Whitehall, NC, and captured during the retreat from Gettysburg at Falling Waters.

--Old Secesh

Monday, September 2, 2013

The 11th North Carolina Infantry

Back on August 10th and 19th, I had entries about W.T. Dickinson's letter about the experience of the 11th NC at Gettysburg, so did some more research on the regiment.

The "Bethel Regiment" was organized and Camp Mangum near Raleigh in March 1862. The nucleus of this regiment came from the 1st NC Regiment which had fought at Bethel. The regiment fought at White Hall, NC, during Foster's Raid and then was transferred to Virginia and lost over half its 617 men at Gettysburg.

At Appomattox, the regiment surrendered 8 officers and 74 men. It's colonel was Collett Leventhorpe (misspelled by Dickinson as Seanenthorpe).

At Gettysburg, they were in Pettigrew's Brigade, Heath's Division with the 26th NC, 47th NC and 52nd NC.

--Old Secesh

Elihu Washburne-- Part 2: Galena Resident

Washburne was a resident of Galena, Illinois, in the northwest corner of the state and represented the area in Congress from 1853 to 1869. This was also U.S. Grant's town before the Civil War.

He was a supporter of U.S. Grant and helped him secure promotions to brigadier general and lieutenant general.

Washburne's brother, Major General Cadwallader C, Washburn (Elihu had added the origuinal "e" to his name), helped him maintain close ties to Grant.

--Old Secesh

Elihu Washburne: Lincoln and Grant Supporter

While in Galena last week, I came across an article about the demolition of Washburne's house he lived in while his mansion was being built. His mansion, right on US-20 entering Galena, is open as a museum. I'll be writing about the demolition in my history blog.

I had heard of the name but didn't know much about him.

From Wikipedia.

Elihu Washburne (1816-1887) played a prominent role in the early Republican party, supported Abraham Lincoln and was a leader of the Radical Republicans. He strongly opposed the Reconstruction policies of President Johnson and supported black suffrage and civil rights.

Grant appointed Washburne Secretary of State in 1869, but he served just a short time before becoming U.S. minister to France.

--Old Secesh

U.S. Grant Letter to Elihu Washburne-- Part 2 "...One Nation, and That Without Slavery."

The letter to Grant's friend went on past his not wanting command of the army in the east to give his reflections on slavery.

"The people of the North need not quarrel over the institution of slavery, for it is dead and cannot be resurrected...I never was an abolitionist, but I try to judge fairly and honestly and it became patent to my mind early in the rebellion that the North and South could never live at peace with each other except as one nation, and that without slavery."

--Old Secesh